1. Ranjbar S, Zhong X, Manautou J and Lu X*. A holistic analysis of the intrinsic and delivery-mediated toxicity of siRNA therapeutics. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2023 Aug 9;201:115052. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2023.115052.
  2. Bak A, Burlage R, Greene N, Nambiar P, Lu X, Templeton A. Accelerating Drug Product Development and Approval: Early Development and Evaluation. Pharm Res. 2023 Aug 8. doi: 10.1007/s11095-023-03566-1. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37552384.
  3. Luo WC, Zhang W, Kim R, Chong H, Patel SM, Bogner RH, Lu X*. Impact of Controlled Ice Nucleation and Lyoprotectants on Nanoparticle Stability during Freeze-drying and upon Storage. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2023, 641:123084.
  4. Puri A, Ibrahim F, Beringhs AO, Isemann C, Zakrevsky P, Whittenburg A, Hargrove D, Kanai T, Dillard R.S., Val ND, Nantz MH, Lu X, Shapiro BA. Stealth oxime ether lipid vesicles promote delivery of functional DsiRNA in human lung cancer A549 tumor bearing mouse xenografts. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine. Volume 44, 2022: 102572
  5. Beringhs AO. Ndaya D, Bosire R, Kasi RM, Lu X*. Imaging Tumor Heterogeneity and the Variations in Nanoparticle Accumulation using Perfluorooctyl Bromide Nanocapsule X-ray Computed Tomography Contrast. Advanced Therapeutics. April 2022, 5 (8) Cover Image
  6. Luo WC, Beringhs AOR, Kim R, Zhang W, Patel SM, Bogner RH, Lu X. Impact of formulation on the quality and stability of freeze-dried nanoparticles. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics. 2021,169: 256-267.
  7. Tahmasbi Rad A, Hargrove D, Daneshmandi L, Ramsdell A, Lu X, and Nieh MP. Codelivery of Paclitaxel and Parthenolide in Discoidal Bicelles for a Synergistic Anticancer Effect: Structure Matters. Advanced NanoBioMed Research.
  8. Salem AK, Lu X. National Institute for Pharmaceutical Technology & Education (NIPTE) Research and Perspective: Advances in Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2021 May 11;22(4):152.
  9. Meng T, Kosmider L, Chai G, Moothedathu Raynold AA, Pearcy AC, Qin B, Wang Y, Lu X*, Halquist MS*, Xu Q*. LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of dexamethasone and tobramycin in rabbit ocular biofluids. J Chromatogr B. Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2021 Apr 30;1170:122610. Epub 2021 Mar 1.
  10. Lin X, Beringhs AO, Lu X*. Applications of nanoparticle-antibody conjugates in immunoassays and tumor imaging. AAPS J. 2021, 23.
  11. Beringhs AO, Ndaya D, Bosire R, Kasi RM, Lu X*. Stabilization and X-Ray Attenuation of PEGylated Cholesterol/Polycaprolactone-based Perfluorooctyl Bromide Nanocapsules for CT Imaging. AAPS PharmSci Tech. 2021 Mar 5;22(3):90.
  12. Mekjaruskula C, Beringhs AO, Luo W, Xu Q, Halquist M, Qin B, Wang Y, Lu X*. Impact of Membranes on In Vitro Release Assessment: a Case Study Using Dexamethasone. AAPS PharmSci Tech. 2021 Jan 10;22(1):42.
  13. Huang Y, Luo Y, Liu H, Zhao J, Lu X, Lei Y. A subcutaneously injected SERS nanosensor enabled long-term in vivo glucose tracking. Engineered Science. 2021, 14: 59-68.
  14. Hargrove D, Liang B, Kashfi-Sadabad R, Joshi G, Gonzalez-Fajardo L, Glass S, Jay M, Salner A, Lu X*. Tumor-mesoporous silica nanoparticle interactions following intraperitoneal delivery for targeting peritoneal metastasis. Journal of Controlled Release. 2020, 328:846-858.
  15. Patere S, Newman B, Wang Y, Choi S, Mekjaruskula C, Jay M and Lu X*. Influence of In vitro Release Methods on Assessment of Tobramycin Ophthalmic Ointments. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2020, 590, 30:19938
  16. Fan Y, Huang Y, Linthicum W, Beringhs AO, Dang Y, Xu Z, Wang T, Wang X, Sifat I, Ling J, Lei Y, Lu X, Huey BD, Suib SL, Li B. Towards Long-term Accurate and Continuous Monitoring of Nitrate in Wastewater Using PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene)-Solid-state Ion-selective Membrane (S-ISM) Sensors. ACS Sensors. 2020.
  17. Beringhs A O, Singh S. P., Valdez TA*, Lu X*. Sublingual Indocyanine Green Films for Non-Invasive Swallowing Assessment and Inflammation Imaging through NIR/SWIR Optical Imaging. Scientific Report. 2020 Aug 19;10(1):14003. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-71054-2.
  18. Perry JM, Tao F, Roy A, Lin T, He XC, Chen S, Lu X, Nemechek J, Ruan L … & Li L. Overcoming Wnt–β-catenin dependent anticancer therapy resistance in leukaemia stem cellsNature Cell Biology. 2020, 1-12.
  19. Chen W, Li N, Ma Y, Minus ML, Benson K, Lu X, Wang X, Ling X, Zhu H. Superstrong and Tough Hydrogel through Physical Cross-Linking and Molecular Alignment. Biomacromolecules. 2019, 20(12):4476-4484.
  20. Huang Y, Beringhs A, Chen Q, Song D, Chen W, Lu X, Fan TH, Nieh MP, Lei Y. Genetically-engineered bacterial outer membrane vesicles with expressed nano-luciferase reporter for in vivo bioluminescence kinetic modeling through non-invasive imaging. ACS Applied Bio Materials. 2019 DOI: 10.1021/acsabm.9b00690
  21. Gonzalez-Fajardo L, Ndaya D, Kasi RM, Lu X*. Influence of the method of preparation on the characteristics and performance of cholesterol-based polymeric nanoparticles for redox-triggered release of doxorubicin in tumor cells. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2019, 571:118701.
  22. Song D, Beringhs AO, Zhuang Z, Joshi G, Tran TH, Claffey KP, Yuan H, Lu X*. Overcoming hypoxia-induced chemoresistance to cisplatin through tumor oxygenation monitored by optical imaging. Nanotheranostics. 2019, 3(2):223-235.
  23. Kashfi‐Sadabad RGonzalez‐Fajardo LHargrove DAhmadi BMunteanu DShahbazmohamadi S,Jay MLu X*. Engineering Multifunctional Gold Decorated Dendritic Mesoporous Silica/Tantalum Oxide Nanoparticles for Intraperitoneal Tumor‐Specific Delivery. Particle & Particle System Characterization. 201936, 1900058.
  24. Lakshmanan R, Campbell J, Ukani G, O’Reilly Beringhs A, Selvaraju V, Thirunavukkarasu M, Lu X, Palesty JA, Maulik N. Evaluation of dermal tissue regeneration using resveratrol loaded fibrous matrix in a preclinical mouse model of full-thickness ischemic wound. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2019 Mar 10;558:177-186. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.01.001. Epub 2019 Jan 9.
  25. Chen J, Dong Q, Huang Y, Ma X, Fan TH, Bian Z, O’Reilly Beringhs A, Lu X, Lei Y Preparation, characterization and application of a protein hydrogel with rapid self-healing and unique autofluoresent multi-functionalities. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2018 Nov 8. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.36534.
  26. Beringhs AO, Minatovicz BC, Zhang GZ, Chaudhuri B and Lu X*Impact of Porous Excipients on the Manufacturability and Product Performance of Solid Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems. AAPS PharmSciTech. 
  27. Patere S, Newman B, Wang Y, Choi S, Vora S, Ma A, Jay M, and Lu X*. Influence of Manufacturing Process Variables on the Properties of Ophthalmic Ointments of Tobramycin. Pharmaceutical Research. 2018, 35:179.
  28. Glass S, Gonzalez-Fajardo L, Beringhs AO and Lu X*. Redox Potential and ROS-Mediated Nanomedicines for Improving Cancer Therapy. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2017 Nov 21. doi: 10.1089/ars.2017.7370.
  29. Su M, Lin Y, Cui C, Tian X, Lu X, He Z and Lai L. ESC-derived thymic epithelial cells expressing MOG prevents EAE by central and peripheral tolerance mechanisms. Cellular Immunology. 2017, 322:84-91. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2017.10.007
  30. Kim J, Narayan R, Lu X, Jay M. Neutron-Activatable Needles for Radionuclide Therapy of Solid Tumors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. 2017,105(12):3273-3280
  31. Kim J, Luo ZX, Wu Y, Lu X, Jay M. In-situ formation of holmium oxide in pores of Mesoporous Carbon Nanoparticles as substrates for neutron-activatable radiotherapeutics . Carbon. 2017, 117: 92–99.
  32. Hu R, Liu Y, Song Y, Su M, Lu X, Rood D, Lai L. Recombinant IL-7/HGFβ hybrid cytokine separates acute graft-versus-host-disease from graft-versus-tumour activity by altering donor T cell trafficking. British Journal of Haematology. 2016. DOI: 10.1111/bjh.14268
  33. Chen J, Ma X, Dong Q, Song D, Hargrove D, Vora SR, Ma AWK., Lu X and Lei Y. Self-healing of Thermal-induced, Biocompatible and Biodegradable Protein Hydrogel. RSC Advances, 2016, 6: 56183-56192
  34. Ma X, Wang T, Hargrove D, Dong Q, Song D, Luo Z, Lu X, Fan TH, Lei Y. Novel Green and Red Autofluorescent Protein Nanoparticles for Cell Imaging and In Vivo Biodegradation and Modeling. RSC Advances, 2016,6: 50091-50099
  35. Fu Q, Hargrove D, Lu X*. Improving Paclitaxel Pharmacokinetics by Using Tumor-Specific Mesoporous Silica nanoparticles with Intraperitoneal Delivery. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine. 2016, 12: 1951–1959.
  36. Ma X, Wang T, Hargrove D, Dong Q, Song D, Luo Z, Chen J, Lu X, Luo Y, Fan TH, Lei Y, Protein Microspheres with Unique Green and Red Autofluorescence for Non-invasive Tracking and Modelling Their In Vivo Biodegradation. ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2016, 2 (6): 954–962.
  37. L. Gonzalez-Fajardo, LH. Mahajan, D. Ndaya, D Hargrove, JE. Manautou, BT. Liang, MH Chen, RM. Kasi, and X Lu*. Reduced In Vivo Toxicity of Doxorubicin by Encapsulation in Cholesterol-Containing Self-Assembled Nanoparticles. Pharmacological research. 2016, 107 :93-101.
  38. Ma X, Sun X, Hargrove D, Chen J, Song D, Dong Q, Lu X, Fan TH, Fu Y, and Lei Y. A Biocompatible and Biodegradable Protein Hydrogel with Green and Red Autofluorescence: Preparation, Characterization and In Vivo Biodegradation Tracking and Modeling. Scientific Reports. 2016; 6: 19370.
  39. Nguyen CT, Tran TH, Lu X*, Kasi RM*. Redox-Sensitive Nanoparticles from Amphiphilic Cholesterol-Based Block Copolymers for Enhanced Tumor Intracellular Release of Doxorubicin. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine. 2015, 11(8): 2071–2082
  40. Wasalathanthri DP, Li D, Song D, Zheng Z, Choudhary D, Jansson I, Lu X, Schenkman JB, Rusling JF. Elucidating Organ-Specific Metabolic Toxicity Chemistry from Electrochemiluminescent Enzyme/DNA Arrays and Bioreactor Bead-LC-MS/MS. Chemistry Science. Chem. Sci., 2015,6, 2457-2468.
  41. Deshapriya I, Stromer B, Pattammattel A, Kim C, Bartolome R, Gonzales-fajardo  L, Patel V, Gutkind J, Lu X, Kumar C. Fluorescent, Bioactive, Protein Nanoparticles (Prodots) for Rapid, Improved Uptake by Cells. Bioconjugate Chemistry. 2015, 26 (3), pp 396–404.
  42. Tran TH, Nguyen CT, Gonzalez-Fajardo L, Hargrove D, Song D, Deshmukh P, Mahajan L, Ndaya D, Lai L, Kasi RM, and Lu X*. Long Circulating Self-Assembled Nanoparticles from Cholesterol-Containing Brush-Like Block Copolymers for Improved Drug Delivery to Tumors. Biomacromolecules. 2014, 15 (11): 4363–4375.
  43. Carboni E, Tschudi K, Nam J, Lu X, Ma AW. Particle Margination and Its Implications on Intravenous Anticancer Drug Delivery. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2014, 15(3):762-71.
  44. Nguyen CT, Tran TH, Lu X, Kasi RM. Self-assembled nanoparticles from thiol functionalized liquid crystalline brush block copolymers for dual encapsulation of doxorubicin and gold nanoparticles. Polymer Chemistry. 2014, 5: 2774-2783
  45. Tran TH, Guo Y, Song D, Bruno R, Lu X*. Quercetin-containing self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system for improving oral bioavailability. J. Pharm. Sci. 2014, 103 (3): 840-852.
  46. Di Pasqua AJ, Yuan H, Chung Y, Kim JK, Huckle JE, Li C, Sadgrove M, Tran TH, Jay M, Lu X*. Neutron-activatable holmium-containing mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a potential radionuclide therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer. Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 2013, 54:111-116.
  47. Howard MD, Lu X, Rinehart JJ, Jay M, Dziubla TD. Carboxylesterase-Triggered Hydrolysis of Nanoparticle PEGylating Agents. Langmuir. 2012, 28(33):12030-12037.
  48. Kim JK, Yuan H, Nie J, Yang YT, Leggas M, Potter PM, Rinehart J, Jay M and Lu X*. High payload dual therapeutic-imaging nanocarriers for triggered tumor delivery. Small. 2012, 8: 2895-2903.
  49. Di Pasqua AJ, Miller ML, Lu X, Peng L, Jay M., Tumor accumulation of neutronactivatable holmium-containing mesoporous silica nanoparticles in an orthotopic non-small cell lung cancer mouse model, Inorganica Chimica Acta 2012, 393: 334–336.
  50. Di Pasqua AJ, Huckle JE, Kim JK, Chung Y, Wang AZ, Jay M and Lu X*. Preparation of neutron activatable holmium nanoparticles for the treatment of ovarian cancer metastases. Small. 2012, 8 (7): 997-1000.
  51. Howard MD, Lu X, Jay M and Dziubla T. Optimization of the lyophilization process for long-term stability of solid lipid nanoparticles. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. 2012 38(10):1270-1279.
  52. Kim JK, Howard MD, Dziubla TD, Rinehart JJ, Jay M and Lu X*. Uniformity of drug payload and its effect on stability of solid lipid nanoparticles containing an ester prodrug. ACS Nano. 2011, 5 (1): 209-216.
  53. Howard MD, Lu X, Rinehart JJ, Jay M, Dziubla TD. Physicochemical characterization of nanotemplate engineered solid lipid nanoparticles. Langmuir. 2011, 27(5), 1964–1971.
  54. Lu X, Howard MD, Talbert DR, Rinehart JJ, Jay M and Leggas M. Nanoparticles containing anti-inflammatory agents as chemotherapy adjuvants II: role of plasma esterases in drug release. AAPS J. 2009, 11(1):120-122.
  55. Sutthanut K, Lu X, Jay M and Sripanidkulchai B.  Solid lipid nanoparticles for topical administration of kaempferia parviflora extracts. Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology. 2009, 5: 224–232.
  56. Suo X, Lu X, Hu T, Ma G and Su Z. A solid-phase adsorption method for PEGylation of human serum albumin and staphylokinase: preparation, purification and biochemical characterization. Biotechnol.Lett. 2009,31:1191-1196.
  57. Suo X, Zheng C, Yu P, Lu X, Ma G, Su Z. Solid phase pegylation of hemoglobin. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol. 2009, 37(4):147-55.
  58. Howard MD, Jay M, Dziubla T and Lu X*PEGylation of nanocarrier drug delivery systems: state of the art, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 2008, 4: 133–148.
  59. Lu X*, Howard MD, Mazik M, Eldridge J, Rinehart JJ, Jay M and Leggas M.  Nanoparticles containing anti-inflammatory agents as chemotherapy adjuvants: optimization and characterization. AAPS J. 2008, 10(1):133-140.
  60. Zhu D, Lu X, Hardy PA, Leggas M and Jay M. Nanotemplate-engineered nanoparticles containing gadolinium for magnetic resonance imaging of tumors. Invest. Radiology2008, 43: 129–140.
  61. Yu P, Zhang G, Bi J, Lu X, Wang Y and Su Z. Facile purification of mono-PEGylated interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and its characterization with multi-angle laser light scattering, Process Biochemistry, 2007, 42(6): 971-977.
  62. Yu P, Li X, Li X, Lu X, Ma G and Su Z. Preparative purification of polyethylene glycol derivatives with polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads as chromatographic packing. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2007, 17 (20): 5605-5609.
  63. Lu X, Xu YH, Zheng CY, Zhang GF and Su ZG. Ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether as a protein cross-linker: a case study for cross-linking of hemoglobin. J. Chem. Tech. and Biotech. 2006, 81(5):767-775.
  64. Lu X, Zheng CY, Shi XD, Wang YQ, Suo XY, Yu PZ, Xu YH, Ma TM and Su ZG. Conjugate of bovine hemoglobin and human serum albumin as a candidate for blood substitute: characteristics and effects on rats. Art. Cells, Blood Subs. & Biotech. 2005, 33(2):83-99.
  65. Lu X, Zheng CY, Xu YH and Su ZG. Disuccinimidyl suberate cross-linked hemoglobin as a novel red blood cell substitute. Science in China, 2005, 48(1):49-60.
  66. Lu X, Zhao D X, Ma G H and Su Z G. Polyethylene glycol increases purification and recovery, alters retention behavior in flow-through chromatography of hemoglobin. J Chromatogr. A. 2004, 1059(1-2) : 233-237.
  67. Lu X, Zhao DX and Su ZG. Purification of hemoglobin by ion exchange chromatography in flow-through mode with PEG as an escort. Art. Cells, Blood Subs. & Biotech., 2004,32 (2):209-227.
  68. He ML, Lu X, Zhao DX and Su ZG. A novel cross-linking reagent for bovine hemoglobin modification. Biotechnology Letters, 2003,25: 327-330.
  69. Lu X. Development and challenge of modified hemoglobin as red blood cell substitutes. Chinese Journal of Biotechnology. 2006, 22 (1):7-18.
  70. Xu YH, Lu X, Zheng CY, Tan TW and Su ZG. Optimization of reaction process for cross-linking hemoglobin with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether. J Chemical Engineering of Chinese Universities.2006, 20(3):401-406.
  71. Shi XD, Lu X, Zheng CY, Yu PZ, Suo XY, Wang YQ and Su ZG. Study on oxidation and antioxidation of hemoglobin in the process of membrane separation. The Chinese Journal of Process Engineering. 2005, 5(6): 659-664.
  72. Lu X, Zhao DX, Jin YT and Su ZG. Rapid Separation of Bovine Serum Albumin from Bovine Blood with Expanded Bed Adsorption. Chinese Journal of Biomedical Pharamaceutics. 2005, 26(1):5-8.
  73. Lu X, Ma TM, Zheng CY, Wang YQ, Shi XD, Suo XY, Yu PZ, Xu YH and Su ZG. Replacement of Rat Blood with Conjugate of Hemoglobin and Human Serum Albumin. Chin. Pham. J. 2005, 40(19):1510-1513.
  74. Wang YQ, Lu X and Su ZG. Simultaneous purification of superoxide dismutase, catalase and hemoglobin from bovine erythrocyte lysate with PEG600 as chaperon. Chinese Journal of Biotechnology. 2005, 21(3): 130-136.
  75. Zhao DX, Lu X and Su ZG. Effects of Polyethylene Glycol on Ion Exchange Chromatography Behavior of Hemoglobin. Journal of Beijing Institute of Technology. 2004, 24(10):924-928.
  76. Lu X, Zhao DX, Jin YT and Su ZG. Efficient separation and purification of bovine hemoglobin using expanded bed adsorption. Journal of Chemical Industry and Engineering (China), 2003, 54(9):1257-1263.
  77. Lu X and Su ZG. Progress in purification of human serum albumin. Chinese Journal of Biotechnology, 2002, 18(6):761-766
  78. Jin YT, Zhao DX, Lu X and Su ZG. Adsorption and Exchange of Hemoglobin on Streamline SP. 10th Chinese Symposium on Biochemical Engineering, in Fine and Special Chemical Product (supplement), 2002: 573-578.
  79. Lu X, Zhao SX and Liu ZH. Biomass estimation of Monascus in solid-state fermentation. Food and Fermentation Industries, 2001, 27(6): 45-49.
  80. Lu X, Zhao SX and Gong HM. Present situation of application research on Monascus and its prospect. Food Science and Technology (China), 2001,1:43-46.
  81. Lu X and Zhao SX. Biomass determination in solid-state fermentation. Journal of Tianjin Institute of Light Industry, 2000,4:57-62.
  82. Lu X and Ou HY. Comparison of fermented food between China and other countries. Chinese Food and Nutrition. 2000, 2:19-20.

* Corresponding author


Beringhs AO, Kashfi R, Lu X. Advances and clinical challenges in biomaterials for in vivo tumor imaging. Biomaterials for Cancer Therapeutics: Evolution and Innovation. Elsevier. 2020.

Hargrove D, Lu X. Neutron Activatable Nanoparticles for Intraperitoneal Radiation Therapy. Cancer Nanotechnology, Methods in Molecular Biology,  Springer 2017;1530:379-389.

Lu X, Ma G and Su Z. Hemoglobin-Based Blood Substitutes – Preparation Technologies and Challenges. In Comprehensive Biotechnology, Volume 5: Medical Biotechnology and Healthcare,  Edited by Cui Z. Elsevier. (2012) Chapter 16:713-728.